[3] Yet despite his physical appearance, John was known as Kaloïōannēs, "John the Good" or "John the Beautiful"; the epithet referred to his character. [60] This expedition included a planned pilgrimage to Jerusalem on which he intended to take his army. The city was taken, but the citadel defied assault. [15][36] The battle put an effective end to the Pechenegs as an independent people; many of the captives taken in the conflict were settled as soldier-farmers within the Byzantine frontier. [42], Early in John's reign the Turks were pressing forward against the Byzantine frontier in western Asia Minor. [33], One of the few members of the imperial family to be placed in an important position by John was his cousin, Adrian Komnenos (son of John's uncle the sebastokrator Isaac). John then besieged but failed to take the city of Neocaesarea, in 1140. Bulgaria was an autocephalous see and required a prestigious man as archbishop. However, Alexios' influential wife, Irene, favoured the Caesar Nikephoros Bryennios, the husband of her eldest child Anna Komnene. Under John, the empire's population recovered to about 10 million people. [9][10], Alexios died the night following his son's decisive move to take power. The brothers were briefly reconciled in 1138, and Isaac returned to Constantinople; however, a year later Isaac was exiled to Heraclea Pontica, where he remained for the rest of John's life. The Turks were forced onto the defensive, while John kept his diplomatic situation relatively simple by allying with the Holy Roman Emperor against the Normans of Sicily. The monastery also served as the imperial sepulchre for the Komnenian dynasty. [8], John Axouch was John II's closest adviser and was his only intimate friend. Esta página se editó por última vez el 19 oct 2020 a las 07:57. King Fulk of Jerusalem, fearing that the emperor's presence with overwhelming military force would constrain him to make an act of homage and formally recognise Byzantine suzerainty over his kingdom, begged the emperor to bring only a modest escort. John II Komnenos or Comnenus (Greek: Ίωάννης Βʹ Κομνηνός, Iōannēs II Komnēnos; September 13, 1087 – 8 April 1143) was Byzantine Emperor from 1118 to 1143. En particular se conoce poco sobre su gestión y políticas internas. Juan II fue un monarca pío y dedicado que estaba determinado a deshacer el daño que el Imperio había sufrido desde la Batalla de M… [25], John's penchant for interfering with his wife's family, the rulers of Hungary, was problematic. [28][61] This lukewarm response resulted in John II deciding to postpone his pilgrimage. In an effort to demonstrate the Byzantine ideal of the emperor's role as the leader of the Christian world, John marched into Muslim Syria at the head of the combined forces of Byzantium and the Crusader states; yet despite the great vigour with which he pressed the campaign, John's hopes were disappointed by the evasiveness of his Crusader allies and their reluctance to fight alongside his forces. [27], In the Crusader states of the Levant it was generally admitted that the Byzantine claims over Antioch were legally valid, though it was pragmatically viewed that only when the Byzantine emperor was in a position to enforce them militarily were they likely to be recognised in practice. 1143). Yet resistance, particularly from the Danishmends of the northeast, was strong, and the difficult nature of holding the new conquests is illustrated by the fact that Kastamonu was recaptured by the Turks even as John was in Constantinople celebrating its return to Byzantine rule. Muchos de ellos, cautivos en el conflicto, se establecieron como soldados-granjeros dentro de las fronteras bizantinas. Indeed, an extant collection of political advice couched in poetic form, called the Mousai, are attributed to Alexios I. Such a coalition did not materialise, but Isaac seems to have retained strong support in Constantinople. [68], Overall, it is clear that John II Komnenos left the empire a great deal better off than he had found it. Angold, Michael, (1995) Church and Society in Byzantium under the Comneni, 1081-1261. İoannes Komnenos (tr); ヨアニス2世コムニノス (ja); Иоанн II Красивый, Иоанн Комнен, Иоанн II Комнен (ru); Ιωάννης Β´ Κομνηνός, Ιωάννης Β' Κομνηνός (el); Johannes 02 Komnenos (sv); Janez II. John was a pious and dedicated monarch who was determined to undo the damage his empire had suffered … Irene, taken by surprise, was unable either to persuade her son to step down, or to induce Nikephoros to contend for the throne. Antes de la llegada de la dinastía de los Comnenos, el Imperio bizantino vivió muchas cosas que marcaron su historia y su futuro. This was an unofficial position known at the time as the mesazon, and equivalent to a vizier or 'prime-minister. Revisa las traducciones de 'Juan II Comneno' en Gallego. Italics indicates a junior co-emperor, while underlining indicates a usurper. Axouch was a Turk captured as a child at the Siege of Nicaea, who had been given as a gift to John's father. Isaac then became the guest of Masoud, the Seljuk Sultan of Rum, and subsequently of Leo, the Prince of Cilician Armenia. These were men who had been politically eclipsed during the ascendancy exercised by John's mother in the later years of the reign of Alexios I. Raymond also wanted to hold on to Antioch, which he had agreed to hand over to John if the campaign was successful in capturing Aleppo, Shaizar, Homs, and Hama. Anna was stripped of her property, which was offered to the emperor's friend John Axouch. [69], John II Komnenos married Princess Piroska of Hungary (renamed Irene), a daughter of King Ladislaus I of Hungary in 1104; the marriage was intended as compensation for the loss of some territories to King Coloman of Hungary. [12][13] One of the very few records of John's own words concerns the plot against him; he says that after ascending the throne, God "destroyed the cunning plots of my visible and invisible enemies and rescued me from every trap subjecting all my enemies under my feet". Axouch was immediately appointed Grand Domestic (in Greek: μέγας δομέστικος, megas domestikos), upon the accession of John II. A Hungarian alliance with the Serbs produced serious consequences for continued Byzantine dominance in the western Balkans. Soon afterwards, Adrian was appointed Archbishop of Bulgaria as John IV of Ohrid. [18], Despite his move away from close reliance on the imperial family and its connections, John's court and government had many similarities to that of his father, not least in its serious tone and piety. As Alexios lay dying in the monastery of the Mangana on 15 August 1118, John, relying on trusted relatives, especially his brother Isaac Komnenos, gained entry into the monastery and obtained the imperial signet ring from his father. [40][41][b] John launched a punitive raid against the Serbs, who had dangerously aligned themselves with Hungary, many of whom were rounded up and transported to Nicomedia in Asia Minor to serve as military colonists. '[16] Such an appointment was remarkable, and a radical departure from the nepotism that had characterised the reign of Alexios I. Planeaba un nuevo avance hacia Siria y Palestina cuando fue herido mortalmente en un accidente de caza. [29], John, alongside his wife who shared in his religious and charitable works, is known to have undertaken church building on a considerable scale, including construction of the Monastery of Christ Pantokrator (Zeyrek Mosque) in Constantinople. [64] However, there is very little overt support for this hypothesis in the primary sources. The theme (province) of Thrakesion was re-established, with its administrative centre at Philadelphia. These invaders had been auxiliaries of the Prince of Kiev. Axouch wisely declined and his influence ensured that Anna's property was eventually returned to her and that John II and his sister became reconciled, at least to a degree. [20], The younger brother of John II, Isaac, had been of essential support during the accession crisis. [a], The Latin historian William of Tyre described John as short and unusually ugly, with eyes, hair and complexion so dark he was known as 'the Moor'. También conocido como "Juan el Hermoso" o "Juan el Bueno" (Kaloïōannēs), fue el hijo mayor y sucesor de Alejo I Comneno y de Irene Ducas, y el segundo emperador del periodo conocido como la Restauración Comneno. [23] Lothair's successor Conrad III was approached in 1140 for a royal German bride for John's youngest son Manuel. In the southeast, John extended Byzantine control from the Maeander in the west all the way to Cilicia and Tarsus in the east. Isaac aimed at replacing his brother as emperor. John descended rapidly on northern Syria, forcing Joscelin II of Edessa to render hostages, including his daughter, as a guarantee of his good behaviour. [27][48][49], In the spring of 1139, the emperor campaigned with success against Turks, probably nomadic Turkomans, who were raiding the regions along the Sangarios River, striking their means of subsistence by driving off their herds. Juan II intervino en los Balcanes aplastando a los restos de los pechenegos (1122), e intervino también en Hungría y Serbia. In particular little is known of the history of John's domestic rule or policies. Members of his court were expected to restrict their conversation to serious subjects only. The ensuing Battle of Beroia was hard fought, John was wounded in the leg by an arrow, but by the end of the day the Byzantine army had won a crushing victory. [11] Anna's husband Nikephoros had little sympathy with her ambitions, and it was his lack of support which doomed the conspiracy. In the reign of Alexios I sebastokratores had wielded considerable power and Isaac would have had an expectation of a similar level of authority being devolved on himself. His speech was dignified, but he engaged in repartee on occasion. [37] The Serbian campaign may have taken place between two distinct phases in the war against Hungary. Irene was born in 1088. [6] By the example of his personal morality and piety he effected a notable improvement in the manners of his age. Regions that had been lost to the empire since the Battle of Manzikert were recovered and garrisoned. [65][66] Another theory alleges that the reason for this choice was the AIMA prophecy, which foretold that John's successor should be one whose name began with an "M". [63] John initially ignored the wound and it became infected. John persevered, however, and Kastamonu soon changed hands once more. [35], In 1119–1121 John defeated the Seljuq Turks, establishing his control over southwestern Anatolia. En el curso de sus veinticinco años de reinado, Juan se alió con el Sacro Imperio Romano en el oeste, e intervino en los Balcanes aplastando a los restos de los pechenegos (1122), hasta el punto de que dejaron de ser un pueblo independiente. John re-confirmed the treaty of 1082, in August 1126. John surrounded the Pechenegs as they burst into Thrace, tricked them into believing that he would grant them a favourable treaty, and then launched a devastating surprise attack upon their fortified camp. That Isaac was seeking aid from these princes in a bid to take the Byzantine throne by force is highly likely. John quickly earned a formidable reputation as a wall-breaker, taking one stronghold after another from his enemies. Vamos un poco atrás. [44][45][46] The Byzantines were confirmed in their control of Braničevo, Belgrade and Zemun and they also recovered the region of Sirmium (called Frangochorion in Choniates), which had been Hungarian since the 1060s. It has been suggested that John was assassinated by a conspiracy within the units of his army of Latin origins who were unhappy at fighting their co-religionists of Antioch, and who wanted to place his pro-western son Manuel on the throne. Adrian had become a monk, adopting the monastic name John, and had accompanied the emperor on his campaigns of 1138. Alexios' advice on rulership therefore continued to be available to his son, even after the old emperor's death. [4], John was famed for his piety and his remarkably mild and just reign. Raymond of Poitiers played for time, putting the proposal to the vote of the Antiochene general assembly. During this campaign his eldest son and co-emperor Alexios died of a fever. [34], Though he fought a number of notable pitched battles, the military strategy of John II relied on taking and holding fortified settlements in order to construct defensible frontiers. Consulta los ejemplos de traducción de Juan II Comneno en las frases, escucha la pronunciación y aprende gramática. [24] At much the same time Roger II applied to John II for an imperial bride for his son, but was unsuccessful. Within a year of his accession, however, John II uncovered a conspiracy to overthrow him which implicated his mother and sister. Alexios endured these constant demands without formally changing his intended successor. This threat became especially acute after Roger II of Sicily made himself supreme in southern Italy and assumed the title of king. The imperial family harboured some degree of resentment at this decision, which was reinforced by the fact that they were required to make obeisance to John Axouch whenever they met him. Descriptions of him and his actions indicate that he had great self-control and personal courage, and was an excellent strategist and general. With trusted advisors of his own choosing, such as John Axouch, and later the support of his son and co-emperor, Alexios, John II offered no meaningful role to Isaac in the governance of the empire. He is reputed never to have condemned anyone to death or mutilation. John was a pious and dedicated monarch who was determined to undo the damage his empire had suffered following the Battle of Manzikert, half a century earlier. Only when religion impinged directly on imperial policy, as in relations with the papacy and the possible union of the Greek and Latin churches, did John take an active part. The triumph that John celebrated following his capture of Kastamuni in 1133 can be seen as being a public affirmation of John's legitimacy as emperor embodied in the celebration of the defeat of external foes. También conocido como "Juan el Hermoso" o "Juan el Bueno" (Kaloïōannēs), fue el hijo mayor y sucesor de Alejo I Comneno y de Irene Ducas, y el segundo emperador del periodo conocido como la Restauración Comneno. However, Nikephoros remained on good terms with his brother-in-law. Joscelin and Raymond conspired to delay the promised handover of Antioch's citadel to the emperor, stirring up popular unrest in the city directed at John and the local Greek community. He died a number of days after the accident, on April 8, probably of septicaemia. The Mousai are addressed directly to John II and exhort him, amongst other things, to maintain justice during his reign and a full treasury. [58] The emperor was distracted by a Seljuq raid on Cilicia and developments in the west, where he was pursuing a German alliance directed against the threat posed by the Normans of Sicily. War with the Hungarians and Serbs (1127–1129 – chronology uncertain), War of attrition against the Anatolian Turks (1119–20, 1130–35, 1139–40), Campaigning in Cilicia and Syria (1137–1138), Alexios I was the subject of an extensive biography, the. En Oriente logró imponer su autoridad sobre el Principado de Antioquía, y sobre los estratégicos condados de Edesa y Trípoli. He organised a number of disputations between Greek and Latin theologians. Juan II Comneno, (Griego: Ίωάννης Βʹ Κομνηνός, Iōannēs II Komnēnos, 13 de septiembre de 1087-8 de abril de 1143), fue emperador bizantino entre 1118 y 1143. According to this view, John's campaigns benefited the Byzantine Empire because they protected the empire's heartland, which lacked reliable borders, while gradually extending its territory in Asia Minor. All accounts agree that he was a faithful husband to his wife, an unusual trait in a medieval ruler. In 1132 John had to return from campaign in haste, when news reached him that conspirators in Constantinople had made an appeal to Isaac to become their ruler. Emperor Alexios had thought him a good companion for his son, and so he had been brought up alongside the prince in the imperial household. Komnenian restoration of the Byzantine Empire, Mosaic of John Komnenos, Eirene and Alexios in Hagia Sophia, Centre for Byzantine Studies, University of Thessaloniki, Theodora Megale Komnene ("Despina Khatun"), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_II_Komnenos&oldid=991111887, Byzantine people of the Byzantine–Seljuq Wars, Burials at the Monastery of Christ Pantocrator (Constantinople), Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Maria Komnene (twin to Alexios), who married, Bucossi, Alessandra and Suarez, Alex R. (2016), Linardou, K. (2016) "Imperial Impersonations", in, Magdalino, P. (2016) "The Triumph of 1133", in, Stathakopoulos, D. (2016) "John II Komnenos: a historiographical essay", in, Bucossi, Alessandra and Rodriguez Suarez, (2016), This page was last edited on 28 November 2020, at 09:28. John had lost all confidence in his allies, and a Muslim army under Zengi was approaching to try to relieve the city, therefore the emperor reluctantly accepted the offer. In the extensive artwork that Isaac commissioned, he made much of his porphyrogenete status and his relationship with his imperial father, Alexios I, but he made little or no reference to his relationship to his brother John, or to the title of sebastokrator that he had received from him. However, immediately afterwards, in 1122, John quickly transferred his troops to Europe to counter a Pecheneg invasion across the Danube frontier into Paristrion. Juan II Comneno Ducas was born on month day 1087, to Alejo I Comneno and Irene Comneno (born Ducaena). Both his parents were unusually pious and John surpassed them. [67], Historian John Birkenmeier argued that John's reign was the most successful of the Komnenian period. Further Byzantine military successes, Choniates mentions several engagements, resulted in a restoration of peace. [39], John's marriage to the Hungarian princess Piroska involved him in the dynastic struggles of the Kingdom of Hungary. (13 sep. 1087–8 abr. En el sudeste, Juan extendió el control bizantino desde el Meandro hasta Cilicia y Tarso. En realidad, los motivos por los que se pelearon no parecen para tanto. Menos éxito tuvo en su intervención en las luchas entre pisanos y genoveses, sin lograr ayuda de ninguno para aliviar el dominio veneciano del comercio bizantino. [38] Eventually John was forced to come to terms; the war was costing him more than it was worth, and he was not prepared to transfer funds from the imperial land forces to the navy for the construction of new ships. Even Raymond II, the Count of Tripoli, hastened northwards to pay homage to John, repeating the homage that his predecessor had given John's father in 1109. [15], The family intrigues that challenged his succession to the throne probably contributed to John's approach to rulership, which was to appoint men from outside the imperial family to high office. The Hungarian pretender Álmos died in 1129, removing the major source of friction. In The Development of the Komnenian Army 1081–1180, he stresses the wisdom of John's approach to warfare, which focused on sieges rather than risking pitched battles. [7] Despite this coronation, the accession of John was contested. This was a radical departure from the methods of his father, who had used the imperial family and its many connections to fill almost all senior administrative and military posts. The Byzantines were defeated by the conditions rather than by the Turks: the weather was very bad, large numbers of the army's horses died, and provisions became scarce. Que si le ponían levadura al pan, que si el emperador podía tener importanci… However, in the space of a few days, his position seemed secure. [47] This route was especially important as it also led to Cilicia and the Crusader states of Syria. John has been assessed as the greatest of the Komnenian emperors. An incident involving the abuse of a member of the imperial family by Venetians led to a dangerous conflict, especially as Byzantium had depended on Venice for its naval strength. Irene died on August 13, 1134 and was later venerated as Saint Irene. For this reason, he has been called the Byzantine Marcus Aurelius. [19], The increase in military security and economic stability within Byzantine western Anatolia created by John II's campaigns allowed him to begin the establishment of a formal provincial system in these regions. Juan II Comneno, (Griego: Ίωάννης Βʹ Κομνηνός, Iōannēs II Komnēnos, 13 de septiembre de 1087-8 de abril de 1143), fue emperador bizantino entre 1118 y 1143. The welcome accorded to ousted claimants of the Hungarian throne in Constantinople was seen by the Byzantines as a useful insurance policy and source of political leverage. Angold, Michael, (1997) The Byzantine Empire 1025–1204, a political history, Longman, (Second Edition). During Alexios' final illness both wife and daughter exploited his physical weakness to apply pressure on him in support of their agenda for the succession. John II Komnenos or Comnenus was Byzantine emperor from 1118 to 1143. Irene retired to a monastery and Anna seems to have been effectively removed from public life, taking up the less active occupation of historian. [21][22], The central tenet of the foreign policy of John II in the West was to maintain an alliance with the German emperors (Holy Roman Empire). Pope Innocent II, with the Church's possessions in Italy under threat by Roger II, who supported Antipope Anacletus II, was also party to the alliance of Lothair and John II. https://es.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Juan_II_Comneno&oldid=130184692, Emperadores del Imperio bizantino de la dinastía de los Comnenos, Emperadores del Imperio bizantino del siglo XII, Bizantinos de las guerras bizantino-selyúcidas, Wikipedia:Artículos buenos en la Wikipedia en ruso, Wikipedia:Artículos buenos en la Wikipedia en inglés, Wikipedia:Artículos buenos en la Wikipedia en francés, Wikipedia:Artículos destacados en la Wikipedia en italiano, Wikipedia:Artículos con identificadores VIAF, Wikipedia:Artículos con identificadores ISNI, Wikipedia:Artículos con identificadores BNE, Wikipedia:Artículos con identificadores GND, Wikipedia:Artículos con identificadores LCCN, Wikipedia:Artículos con identificadores BIBSYS, Wikipedia:Artículos con identificadores UB, Wikipedia:Páginas con enlaces mágicos de ISBN, Licencia Creative Commons Atribución Compartir Igual 3.0. [1] In the course of the quarter-century of his reign, John made alliances with the Holy Roman Empire in the west, decisively defeated the Pechenegs, Hungarians and Serbs in the Balkans, and personally led numerous campaigns against the Turks in Asia Minor. After a Byzantine retaliatory attack on Kerkyra, John exiled the Venetian merchants from Constantinople. He then assembled his armed followers and rode to the Great Palace, gathering the support of the citizenry on the way. A pesar del gran vigor personal con el que impulsó la campaña, sus esperanzas quedaron en nada ante las evasivas de sus aliados cruzados y su poca disposición para luchar junto a sus fuerzas en el asedio de Shaizar. Despite his personal austerity, John had a high conception of the imperial role and would appear in full ceremonial splendour when this was advantageous. [59], In early 1142 John campaigned against the Seljuqs of Iconium to secure his lines of communication through Antalya. [2]​ Durante su reinado la población del Imperio se recuperó hasta aproximadamente 10 millones de habitantes. Two rather ambiguous Byzantine rhetorical allusions were the basis of this theory – all contemporary historical writing unanimously agrees on an accidental cause for the death of John II. The Hungarians, led by Stephen II, then invaded Byzantium's Balkan provinces in 1127, with hostilities lasting until 1129; however, an alternative chronology has been suggested with the Hungarian attack and Byzantine retaliation taking place in 1125 with a renewal of hostilities in 1126. John appointed a number of his father's personal retainers to senior administrative posts, men such as Eustathios Kamytzes, Michaelitzes Styppeiotes and George Dekanos. The Crusader Princes were suspicious of each other and of John, and neither wanted the other to gain from participating in the campaign. But this produced further retaliation, and a Venetian fleet of 72 ships plundered Rhodes, Chios, Samos, Lesbos, Andros and captured Kefalonia in the Ionian Sea. [42] The Hungarians attacked Belgrade, Nish and Sofia; John, who was near Philippopolis in Thrace, counterattacked, supported by a naval flotilla operating on the Danube. Fittingly, John's close friend John Axouch, although he is recorded as having tried hard to persuade the dying emperor that Isaac was the better candidate to succeed, was instrumental in ensuring that Manuel's assumption of power was free from any overt opposition. [2] The quarter-century of John II's reign is less well recorded by contemporary or near-contemporary writers than the reigns of either his father, Alexios I, or his son, Manuel I. [15] After a challenging campaign, the details of which are obscure, the emperor managed to defeat the Hungarians and their Serbian allies at the fortress of Haram or Chramon, which is the modern Nova Palanka; many Hungarian troops were killed when a bridge they were crossing collapsed as they were fleeing from a Byzantine attack.