Regresó a Madrid tras la muerte de don Juan (1679) y siguió ejerciendo hasta su muerte una cierta influencia en la corte, en conflicto con sus nueras. [13] The need to reduce spending resulted in the 1668 treaties of Aix-la-Chapelle and Lisbon ended the wars with France and Portugal. window.onload=function comocitar() {citapers();citaurl();} When Philip died on 17 September 1665, Charles was only three; Mariana was appointed regent, advised by a Regency Council, until he became a legal adult at the age of 14. Viena. Mariana se convirtió en regente del reino durante la minoría de edad de su hijo. The first was Juan Everardo Nithard, an Austrian Jesuit and her personal confessor who came with her from Vienna; as Philip's will excluded foreigners from the Regency Council, he had to be naturalised, causing immediate resentment. Charles remained childless; by that time, he was almost certainly impotent, his autopsy later revealing he had only one atrophied testicle. Lugar nacimiento . Her replacement was Maria Anna of Neuburg, one of 12 children whose family reputation for fertility made them popular choices for royal marriages. [12], The new government also inherited a wide range of economic and political problems. Fecha muerte . Mariana de Austria fue reina consorte de España como segunda esposa de Felipe IV y regente como madre de Carlos II. 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Definición de Mariana de Austria en el Diccionario de español en línea. [11] Mariana faced issues that would have challenged the most competent ruler; Spain was financially exhausted by almost a century of continuous war, while her reign coincided with the Little Ice Age, a period of cold weather during the second half of the 17th century. Spain was also divided into the Crowns of Castile and Aragon, whose very different political cultures made it almost impossible to enact reforms or increase taxes. The Habsburgs often married within the family to retain their lands and properties, and in 1646 Maria Anna was betrothed to her cousin and heir to the Spanish throne, Balthasar Charles, Prince of Asturias. His death was expected almost from birth; he was "short, lame, epileptic, senile and completely bald before 35,...repeatedly baffling Christendom by continuing to live. Modern assessments of her symptoms conclude it was almost certainly appendicitis, possibly from the treatments undertaken to improve fertility. Nació en Bruselas del entonces gobernador de los Países Bajos, el cardenal-infante don Fernando y de una dama cuya identidad se desconoce. [17], Marie Louise died in February 1689, without producing an heir; as with many deaths of the period, limited medical knowledge led to allegations she was poisoned. Político. Reina. He died in September 1679 and Marianna became regent once again; one of his final acts was arranging the marriage of Charles to 17-year-old Marie Louise of Orléans, which took place in November 1679. Her regency was overshadowed by the need to manage Spain's post-1648 decline as the dominant global power, internal political divisions and the European economic crisis of the second half of the 17th century. The first was Juan Everardo Nithard, an Austrian Jesuit and her personal confessorwho came with her from Vienna; as Philip's will excluded foreigners from the Regency Council, he had to be naturalised, causing immediate … [10], Her son's poor health and lack of an heir led to a constant struggle between Mariana's 'Austrian' faction, and a 'French' faction, nominally led by his illegitimate half-brother, John of Austria the Younger. Several other portraits of her were made, including Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo's Queen Mariana of Spain in Mourning, 1666. [15] An internal power struggle ended with Nithard becoming Ambassador to Rome in February 1669; he was succeeded by Aytona, who died in 1670 and was replaced by Valenzuela, a member of her household since 1661. Cargo . Government finances were in perpetual crisis, the Crown declaring bankruptcy in 1647, 1652, 1661 and 1666. She was then appointed regent for their three-year-old son Charles II, and due to his ill health remained an influential figure until her own death in 1696. Mariana de Austria. Mariana se convirtió en regente del reino durante la minoría de edad de su hijo. Maria Anna was born on 24 December 1634 in Wiener Neustadt, second child of Maria Anna of Spain and her husband Ferdinand (1608-1657), who became Holy Roman Emperor in 1637. Reina consorte y regente de España (Viena, 1634 - Madrid, 1696). Barcelona (España). Residencia Municipal Mariana de Austria Residencia de ancianos y tercera edad: Residencia Municipal Mariana de Austria en Navalcarnero. 367–385. Esta archiduquesa de la Casa de Habsburgo, hija del emperador austriaco Fernando III, se convirtió muy joven en la segunda esposa de su tío, Felipe IV de España (1649). Maria Anna was aunt to future emperors Joseph I and Charles VI, making her an ideal choice for the Austrian faction.[18]. Los retratos de la reina Mariana de Austria realizados por Velázquez en su última década son muy similares entre sí. Autor: Jaime Vicens Vives Mariana de Austria por Velázquez. 1634. Mariana de Austria. [1] [2] Biografía. Información sobre Mariana de Austria en el Diccionario y Enciclopedia En Línea Gratuito. Mariana's second daughter, Maria Ambrosia, lived only fifteen days, followed by two sons, Philip Prospero (1657-1661) and Ferdinand Thomas (1658-1659). Mariana de Austria tuvo una buena educación. Mariana de Austria . el var meses = new Array ("enero","febrero","marzo","abril","mayo","junio","julio","agosto","septiembre","octubre","noviembre","diciembre"); Mariana fue la segunda hija del emperador Fernando III del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico y de su primera esposa, la infanta María Ana de España, con quien tuvo seis vástagos. Cómo citar este artículo:Ruiza, M., Fernández, T. y Tamaro, E. (2004). traducir Mariana de Austria significado Mariana de Austria traducción de Mariana de Austria Sinónimos de Mariana de Austria, antónimos de Mariana de Austria. The long-running Portuguese Restoration War was the most urgent, followed in May 1667 by the War of Devolution, when France invaded the Spanish Netherlands and the Spanish province of Franche-Comté. Dª Mariana se manifiesta también como una pésima Regente, aparta a D. Juan José de Austria de su lado granjeándose su enemistad y se entrega políticamente a su confesor, un jesuita alemán, el padre Nithard al que nombra Consejero de estado, Ministro primer consejero de Despacho e Inquisidor general, convirtiéndole de este modo en el hombre más poderoso del Reino. España. Her exclusion from political life meant she focused on religion and education, which society viewed as fitting women's role as nurturers and providers of moral guidance.[2]. Al quedarse el rey Felipe IV sin heredero masculino y viudo, era necesario buscar una nueva esposa que diese un heredero a … Los retratos de la reina Mariana de Austria realizados por Velázquez en su última década son muy similares entre sí. En la práctica, delegó el gobierno en su confesor, el jesuita austriaco Juan Everardo Nithard; y se vio enfrentada a la oposición del partido que encabezaba don Juan José de Austria, hijo bastardo de Felipe IV. Ante la cuestión crucial de la sucesión de la Corona, planteada por la incapacidad de Carlos II para tener hijos, doña Mariana defendió sin éxito la candidatura de su sobrino José Fernando de Baviera. Under the influence of the 'Austrians,' in 1690 Spain joined the Grand Alliance in the Nine Years' War with France. En Biografías y Vidas. Despite this, the army consisted them a humiliation; in June 1668, Joseph Malladas, an Aragonese captain living in Madrid, was executed for plotting to murder Nithard, reputedly on John's behalf. Significado de Mariana de Austria diccionario. The Portrait of Mariana painted by Diego Velázquez was commissioned by Philip and is the only known full-length painting of her. [21], Mariana supported the 1668 mission led by Diego Luis de San Vitores and Saint Pedro Calungsod to convert the indigenous Chamorro people of Guam and the Mariana Islands to Christianity.[22]. Esta criatura era hija del emperador Fernando III del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico y de la infanta María, hija de Felipe III de España. [19] As his health declined, internal struggles over the succession became increasingly bitter, leadership of the pro-French faction passing to Fernández de Portocarrero, Cardinal and Archbishop of Toledo. Figura más que influyente en su gobierno habría de ser su confesor, el padre Juan Everardo Nithard, que encontró la fuerte oposición de Don Juan José de Austria, único hijo natural reconocido de Felipe IV y enemigo acérrimo de Mariana. Residencia de ancianos pública en Navalcarnero, para mayores y tercera edad, la Residencia Municipal Mariana de Austria.. Puedes preguntarles tus dudas ahora y solicitarles precios o presupuesto: var f=new Date();document.write(f.getDate() + " de " + meses[f.getMonth()] + " de " + f.getFullYear());. Desarrollo. Figura más que influyente en su gobierno habría de ser su confesor, el padre Juan Everardo Nithard, que encontró la fuerte oposición de Don Juan José de Austria, único hijo natural reconocido de Felipe IV y enemigo acérrimo de Mariana. País nacimiento . 1696. She also appears as a detail in Velasquez' masterpiece Las Meninas which features her daughter Margaret Theresa. Mariana of Austria or Maria Anna (24 December 1634 – 16 May 1696) was Queen of Spain from 1649 until her husband and uncle, Philip IV, died in 1665. She adopted the system of using a valido or 'favourite' established by Philip in 1620 and widely used elsewhere in Europe. Fecha nacimiento . Between 1692 and 1699, crops failed across Europe and an estimated 5-10% of the population starved to death. For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for Mariana de Austria . Dio a luz cinco hijos, pero sólo uno de los varones sobrevivió, el que reinaría con el nombre de Carlos II (nacido en 1661). He did not learn to walk until he was eight and never attended school, but foreign observers noted his mental capacities remained intact; others speculated the Regents overstated his defects to retain political control. Mariana de Austria nació en la ciudad austriaca de Wiener Neustadt el 22 o 23 de diciembre de 1634. The inability of her son Charles to produce an heir led to constant manoeuvring by other European powers, which ultimately ended in the 1701 to 1714 War of the Spanish Succession. Mariana es un espejo de las relaciones endogámicas mantenidas por los Austria de España durante los siglos XVI y XVII. MARIANA DE AUSTRIA, regente de España (1634-1696; 1665-1675).Segunda esposa de Felipe IV.La primera y única regencia de España durante la casa de Austria fue ejercida por Mariana de Habsburgo-Austria, la cual, dadas las circunstancias de su matrimonio con Felipe IV, era, a la vez madre y prima hermana de Carlos II. It declared bankruptcy again in 1692 and by 1696, France occupied most of Catalonia; Mariana retained power with the support of German auxiliaries under Maria Anna's brother Charles Philip, many of whom were expelled after Mariana's death. . Recuperado de Of her sisters, Maria Sophia married Peter II of Portugal, while Eleonore was the third wife of Emperor Leopold. On 7 October 1649, Philip married his fourteen-year-old niece in Navalcarnero, outside Madrid; from then on, she was known by her Spanish name 'Mariana.' "[6], When Philip died on 17 September 1665, Charles was only three; Mariana was appointed regent, advised by a Regency Council, until he became a legal adult at the age of 14. Reina consorte y regente de España (Viena, 1634 - Madrid, 1696). [7], A 'foreigner' herself, the two men habitually identified as her 'favourites' were also outsiders; Nithard and Valenzuela, who came from the lower rank of Spanish nobility. [20] She died on 16 May 1696 at the Uceda Palace in Madrid, at the age of sixty-one; the cause is thought to have been breast cancer. In his case, the so-called Habsburg jaw was so pronounced he spoke and ate with difficulty all his life. Mariana of Austria is depicted as regent in a brief scene during the fourth episode of Juana Inés, a television mini-series centered around Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, Mariana's increasingly famous and controversial subject in the colony of New Spain, produced by Canal Once. function citaurl() { var x = location.href; document.getElementById("urlcita").innerHTML = x;} [14], Peace ended the constant drain of Spanish resources, while Aix-La-Chapelle forced France to return most of the territories over-run in 1667 to 1668. Mariana de Austria (Bruselas, 1641 - Madrid, 1715) fue una religiosa española, hija ilegítima del cardenal-infante don Fernando de Austria, que profesó en el convento de las Descalzas Reales bajo el nombre de sor Mariana de la Cruz. Different German Perspectives on Spanish Politics in the 1670s: The Reaction of Vienna and Berlin on the Coup of Juan José de Austria in the Year 1677, JEHM 23(4), 2019, pp. [3], It has been suggested Charles suffered from the endocrine disease acromegaly and a combination of rare genetic disorders often transmitted through recessive genes, including combined pituitary hormone deficiency and distal renal tubular acidosis. [4] However, his elder sister did not appear to suffer the same issues and the authors of the most significant study state it has not been demonstrated (his) disabilities...were caused by...recessive alleles inherited from common ancestors. ¿Desea reproducir alguna biografía en su web. [16], In 1672, Spain was dragged into the Franco-Dutch War; Valenzuela was dismissed when Charles came of age in 1675, but Spanish policy continued to be undermined by the struggle for power. A raíz de la derrota española frente a la Francia de Luis XIV en la Guerra de Devolución (1667-68), Juan José de Austria consiguió la destitución de Nithard (1669), pero no el poder, que acabó siendo confiado a un nuevo valido, Fernando de Valenzuela. La muerte del rey Felipe IV en 1665 dejó a la reina madre como regente de la Monarquía durante la minoría de edad de su hijo Carlos II, asesorada por una Junta de Gobierno. Segunda esposa de Felipe IV y madre de Carlos II, Reina regente. Esta archiduquesa de la Casa de Habsburgo, hija del emperador austriaco Fernando III, se convirtió muy joven en la segunda esposa de su tío, Felipe IV de España (1649). Her parents had six children, of whom only Maria Anna and two brothers survived to adulthood; Ferdinand (1633-1654), and Leopold (1640-1705), elected emperor in 1658.[1]. La regente consiguió debilitar al partido de don Juan, concediéndole cargos menores y realizando gran parte de su programa político. On 6 November 1661, Mariana gave birth to her last child, Charles, later known as El Hechizado or "The Bewitched", in the belief his disabilities were caused by "sorcery." Stolicka, Ondrej. [9] Mariana used a variety of advisors, including Count Peñaranda and the Marquis de Aytona; historian Silvia Mitchell disputes whether Nithard or Valenzuela were 'validos', since Mariana used them to retain power, rather than delegating it. Tipo . She adopted the system of using a valido or 'favourite' established by Philip in 1620 and widely used elsewhere in Europe. This page was last edited on 8 November 2020, at 05:40. La tensión política se solventó haciendo a la reina madre primer ministro (1676); pero en 1677, caído ya Valenzuela, fue desplazada y confinada en Toledo. Era una mujer alegre, amiga de lujos y le gustaba divertirse. Pero cuando intentó prorrogar su Regencia, basándose en la inmadurez e ineptitud del joven rey, se encontró con la rebeldía de Carlos II, que asumió personalmente el poder en 1675, apoyándose en don Juan de Austria. [8] Even modern accounts of her reign often reflect contemporary sources that viewed women as incapable of ruling on their own and thus imply a sexual relationship. [5], Regardless of the cause, Charles suffered ill health throughout his life, and the Spanish court was split by the struggle between his co-heirs, Louis XIV and Emperor Leopold. Se le preparó para ocupar puestos importantes en las monarquías europeas. Dio a luz cinco hijos, pero sólo uno de los varones sobrevivió, el que reinaría con el nombre de Carlos II (nacido en 1661). [citation needed], Generations are numbered by male-line descent from, sfn error: no target: CITEREFGonzalo,_Ceballos,_Quintero2009 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFDurant1963 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFKnighton2005 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFGarcía-Escudero,_Ángel,_Padilla_Nieva,_Giró12009 (, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "Habsburg, Elisabeth (eigentlich Isabella von Oesterreich)", Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich, "Habsburg, Anna von Oesterreich (1528–1587)", "Habsburg, Anna von Oesterreich (Königin von Spanien)", "Habsburg, Margaretha (Königin von Spanien)", "Habsburg, Maria Anna (Königin von Spanien)", "Ferdinand III of Habsburg (Habsburg-Lothringen), Holy Roman Emperor", "Fernando de Valenzuela, marquis de Villa Sierra", García-Escudero, Ángel, Padilla Nieva, Giró1 2009, "The Role of Inbreeding in the Extinction of a European Royal Dynasty", https://doi.org/10.1163/15700658-00002638, "Nobiliario de los reinos y señorios de España (revisado por A. Rujula y Busel). The original is in the Prado Museum in Madrid; a copy was sent to her father Ferdinand and is held by the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna. Madrid. Marianna reinstated the regency in 1677 on the grounds of Charles's ill-health and Valenzuela was restored, before John finally gained control in 1678. La enciclopedia biográfica en línea. Only two of their five children survived to adulthood; in 1666, Margaret Theresa (1651-1673) married her maternal uncle Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor. function citapers() { var x = document.getElementsByTagName("title"); document.getElementById("perscita").innerHTML = x[0].innerHTML;} Lugar muerte . Viena (Austria), 23.XII.1634 – Madrid, 16.V.1696. His death three months later left her without a prospective husband and her widowed uncle Philip IV without an heir.